Lithium Ion Battery BMS

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Battery management system (BMS) is technology dedicated to the oversight of a battery pack, which is an assembly of battery cells, electrically organized in a row x column matrix configuration to enable delivery of targeted range of voltage and current for a duration of time against expected load scenarios. The oversight that a BMS provides usually includes:


Monitoring the battery



Providing battery protection


Estimating the battery’s operational state


Continually optimizing battery performance


Reporting operational status to external devices






Here, the term "battery" implies the entire pack; however, the monitoring and control functions are specifically applied to individual cells, or groups of cells called modules in the overall battery pack assembly. Lithium-ion rechargeable cells have the highest energy density and are the standard choice for battery packs for many consumer products, from laptops to electric vehicles. While they perform superbly, they can be rather unforgiving if operated outside a generally tight safe operating area (SOA), with outcomes ranging from compromising the battery performance to outright dangerous consequences. The BMS certainly has a challenging job description, and its overall complexity and oversight outreach may span many disciplines such as electrical, digital, control, thermal, and hydraulic.






And how does a Lithium Ion Battery BMS work?




THE BASICS


A Lithium Ion Battery is made up of an anode, cathode, separator, electrolyte, and two current collectors (positive and negative). The anode and cathode store the lithium. The electrolyte carries positively charged lithium ions from the anode to the cathode and vice versa through the separator. The movement of the lithium ions creates free electrons in the anode which creates a charge at the positive current collector. The electrical current then flows from the current collector through a device being powered (cell phone, computer, etc.) to the negative current collector. The separator blocks the flow of electrons inside the battery.






CHARGE/DISCHARGE


While the battery is discharging and providing an electric current, the anode releases lithium ions to the cathode, generating a flow of electrons from one side to the other. When plugging in the device, the opposite happens: Lithium ions are released by the cathode and received by the anode.






ENERGY DENSITY VS. POWER DENSITY


The two most common concepts associated with batteries are energy density and power density. Energy density is measured in watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) and is the amount of energy the battery can store with respect to its mass. Power density is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg) and is the amount of power that can be generated by the battery with respect to its mass. To draw a clearer picture, think of draining a pool. Energy density is similar to the size of the pool, while power density is comparable to draining the pool as quickly as possible.






The Vehicle Technologies Office works on increasing the energy density of batteries, while reducing the cost, and maintaining an acceptable power density.






What's more,, there are many different types of Lithium Ion Battery with different models, such as 12V Lithium Ion Battery BMS, 24V Lithium Ion Battery BMS, Prismatic Lithium-ion Cell, 48V Lithium Ion Battery System, 256V Lithium Ion Battery System, 512V Lithium Ion Battery System, 36V Lithium Ion Battery BMS, 48V Lithium Ion Battery BMS, etc.

Long Hot Water Bag

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In winter, I believe that many people have already started buying hot water bottles. The hot water bottle is a personal heating device. Therefore, you should pay attention to its quality when choosing it. It is important to choose safe hot water bottles produced by regular businesses. And pay attention to the safety of hot water bottle. So, let's take a look at what types of hot water bottles are available.






3 categories of Hot Water Bags


Hot water bottles are divided into three categories: traditional hot water bottles, water storage electric hot water bottles and electric pie-shaped hot water bottles. What they have in common is that they can achieve the purpose of heating






1. The traditional hot water bottle is just an empty bag made of rubber, usually square, and also can be a Long Hot Water Bag, with a hot water inlet and outlet at one end, which is sealed with a stopper, and most of it is a spiral stopper. Its use is to fill in hot water for heating Function, according to the material is divided into rubber hot water bottle and PVC hot water bottle.


2. The water storage type electric hot water bottle has a heater inside by filling it with liquid, and plugging in the power supply to heat the liquid in the bag to achieve the purpose of heating.



3. The electric heating cake is filled with thermal insulation cotton, and the moisturizing cotton inside can be heated by plugging in the power source to achieve the heating effect.







Traditional hot water bottles


Medical-grade PVC hot water bottles and rubber hot water bottles are common traditional hot water bottles.






The standard of PVC Hot Wate Bag will be higher. PVC hot water bottle is resistant to high temperature and non-toxic. This is also more related to the production process. However, the general strength of PVC hot water bottles is generally lower than that of rubber hot water bottles, which will cause explosion or water leakage to a large extent after being squeezed.






Rubber Hot Water Bags have better heat resistance than PVC, but rubber ones may sometimes have a heavy smell and smell a little strange. Therefore, rubber hot water bottles are not very suitable for babies.






Electric Hot Water Bag


The electric hand warmer (commonly known as the electric hot water bottle) has novel appearance, large heat storage, long heat preservation time, reasonable structure and convenient use. The rechargeable electric hot water bottle generally contains electrolyte, which is a mixture of water and chemical salts. When the electricity is turned on, the water and the electrolyte have strong conductivity, which heats up quickly and dissipates slowly. The electrolyte in the electric hot water bottle cannot be changed casually. If you accidentally pour it out, you can add water and add a small amount of salt. Plug-in hot water bottle Explanation: It is also called warm water treasure, electric heating bag, personal warmer, etc. It is popular for its affordable price and long-term insulation.






When choosing an electric hot water bottle, choose a fabric that is waterproof, wear-resistant, flame-retardant and easy to clean. Choose a hot water bottle that has good feel and elasticity. You can touch the hot water bottle with your hands when purchasing. The thicker hand feels better. Stretch the hot water bottle and then let go. The easier it is to restore the original shape, the better the elasticity of the hot water bottle.
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